This is the essay i have chosen to write but my tutor has proof read it and i dont understand what he means he said im going off topic? i dont know what to add and what to take out!?? any help would be great thankyou :)
Electronic Media on Contemporary Graphic Design
In this essay I am going to answer the 3rd question which is, Using specific examples discuss the impact of electronic media on contemporary graphic design.
Electronic media has had a huge impact on the graphic design industry and we have seen a big difference over the years.
For example printmaking has changed so much over the years, and how people used to print things to the way they print today it has had a huge impact on the graphic design industry.
One of the earliest forms of the way people used to print is called "Woodcut" it was traditionally used in the Far East and was developed for printing patterns onto cloth and clothing, And In early in the 5th century was introduced to China who used it for printing text and images onto paper. The people who used to carve the wood were specialist cutters and the artist or the person who was using the blocks would tell the cutter the places to carve so certain areas wouldn't get the ink into them.
In the 1430's engraving was developed in Germany and this technique was used by goldsmiths who would use it to crave into metal, Engraving was revived a serious art form in the 20th century.
Later on in the 1400's Etching was discovered this was basically like engraving and the woodcut technique only that where in woodcut the cutter would carve gaps to where he didn't want the ink to be Etching was the opposite.
Mezzotint Aquatint and Drypoint were all different types of etching and engraving each one was used in different places Mezzotint being big in England to reproduce paintings. This was where the cutter would scrape a smooth piece of metal and then the ink would go in between making a dark/light effect. This was invented by a German Soldier called Ludwig von Siegen.
Aquatint is like etching only that this technique uses acid that makes marks in a metal plate unlike etching that uses a needle that makes lines aquatint relies on rosin which is acid resistant.
Drypoint is again like etching but leaves a burr at the edges of each line. This gives the piece of work a blurry look.
Then in the 15th century a German goldsmith first put together the flat bed printing press these methods quickly spread throughout the world, the printing press was a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface then this would transfer whatever image was on the press.
Lithography was invented by a Bavarian author called Alois Senefelder. This was based on the chemical repulsion of oil and water. Usually limestone is used and the image is drawn on with grease. Acid is then used, which then transfers the grease to the limestone, leaving the image burned in. Gum Arabic which is a water soluble substance is then applied to coat it.
Chromolithography became one of the most successful methods of colour-printing it was developed in the 19th century other methods were used similar to the wood block also used with stones but with colours. Chromolithography developed from lithography and it again basically uses the same methods as lithography, this method was very expensive and could take months to produce depending on how many colours were used.
Later on in the 19th century offset printing was discovered, this technique was where the inked image was transferred from a plate to a rubber blanket then to the printing surface. When this is used with the lithographic process it is based on repulsion of oil and water.
The offset technique is a flat image carrier on which the image that is going to be printed obtains ink from ink rollers and the non-printing area attracts a film of water keeping the areas filmed ink free.
Screen-printing comes from the stenciling process; it creates prints exhibiting a stenciled complex deposit of ink through the utilization of a fabric stencil technique. While commercial screen printing often involves high-tech mechanical equipment and calibrated materials, printmakers always prize this technique as a do it yourself kind of job with a low technical requirement usually ending with high quality results. The items that are needed are a squeegee, a mesh, a frame, a stencil, and a substrate, nothing else is required as screen printing is just like stencil printing. Stencil printing is one of the oldest and simplest forms of graphic design.
Screen-printing is good for being able to print on a variety of different materials from rubber to metal and even glass, some artists have used it to print on a variety on an incredibly varied type of substrates, from works on bottles to large pieces of granite even on walls and to work images on objects like textiles which would distort under pressure from printing presses.
Not long after Surface printing was discovered this was also known as flexography this method was mainly used for packaging bags and boxes, this was designed using a 3D relief on a piece of rubber or a kind of plastic material. Ink would be released onto the rolling cylinder this would then rotate and transfer the ink.
In the 1960's an American company called Xerox introduced the photocopier and over the following 20 years it gradually replaced copies such as carbon paper and other duplicating machines. The prevalence of its use is one of the factors that prevented the development of a paperless office heralded in the new digital revolution; Photocopiers are still used today around many offices all over the world and in almost every industry there is.
1969 brought along the laser printer, this was based on advanced xerographic copier, and this was made by a researcher called Gary Starkweather who worked for Xerox, this was a man who had a fully functional printer working by the early 70's, his work turned Xerox into a multibillion-dollar business.
The first commercial implementation of a laser printer was made in 1976 which was work by IBM this was used for high quality printing and invoices and other things like mailing labels this piece of equipment was known for taking up the whole room.
In 1981 the first printer for use with an individual computer was released this again was made by Xerox. Even though it was innovative the Xerox Star 8010 as it was called was an expensive piece of kit costing around (£8,500) only a small number of companies and institutions could purchase it due to its high price tag. When personal computers became more popular the first major LaserJet printer was marketed for mass production this was made by HP and released in 1984, the engine was created by Canon but used HP software. The design was soon followed by other companies such as Brother IBM and others.
But before that in 1970 the dot matrix printer was discovered this was a printer that had a head that runs back forth on the page and prints on impact, the head touches an ink soaked cloth ribbon against the paper and acts like a typewriter. Unlike a typewriter letters are drawn out like dots this makes it able to create a variety of fonts and graphics. The printer uses mechanical pressure this makes it able to create carbon copies and carbonless copies.
Each of the dots is produced by a tiny metal rod, which is controlled by a tiny electromagnet, through small levers. Most dot matrix printers have a single vertical line of dot-making equipment on their print heads, others have interleaved rows this improves dot density.
Later on in 1990's the thermal printer was introduced this was a machine that produced a printed image by heating a special paper thermal paper as it's commonly known as, when the paper passes over the thermal print head the coating turns black in areas which are heated producing an image.
In 1993 Digital printing was introduced, digital printing is the reproduction of digital images on a physical surface like paper, there are lots of different things that can be printed onto digitally such as film, cloth, plastics, and other materials.
Until recently Digital printing is what was used in the modern day and it still is, this method of printing has no limits you can practically print anything, all but one that is, 3D printing this method is a category of rapid prototyping technology. It converts a 3D model into a physical object. 3D printers work by printing successive layers on top of one another to build a three dimensional object. 3D printers are generally faster, more affordable and easier to use.
In recent years when printing was progressing it was very important for people to use protective clothing especially when etching and lithography usually closed toed shoes and long pants. Many years ago printmakers did not live past the age of 35-40 this was because they were always exposed to a variety of solutions, acids solvents and vapors which some were highly toxic.
Also in the past printmakers put their plates in and out of acid with their bare hands, nowadays printmakers use rubber gloves, they also wear a special mask this stops them breathing in toxic fumes and vapors. Most acid baths are now built with ventilation above them, an emergency shower or cleaning system is nearby just in case of spillages.
For the printmakers who use rosin powder nowadays have protective air ventilation systems but years ago printmakers used to hold their breath, Rosin is a serious health hazard and can kill you if too much is inhaled.
In these modern days printmakers use barrier cream when they use protective gloves, also bandages and plasters should always be available to treat open wounds and cuts, as an example the plates can be very sharp before they are shaped.
I think the future for printing looks very dull and I don't think it will be needed anymore in a few years, it has been a fast and growing business over the years and developed very rapidly over the past decade or so but already since 2009 some companies have electronic billboards that advertise for them no ink or paper needed just visual graphics generated by a computer which is much easier than printing. Also I think there is a lot of advertising being done over the internet for example you click on Facebook and there is hundreds of advertisements down the side of the page from bingo websites to eye laser treatment clinics, I think that this form of electronic media has had a major impact on the graphic design industry and the way advertising has been portrayed, everything in the advertising world is surrounded by graphic design from the typography to the visual art work on adverts, labels and posters etc, the old styles of printing were a lot of very hard work compared to how it is today, people can now print without worrying about burning their hands in acid or breathing in toxic fumes or anything like that, and soon we won't really ever need to print using ink ever again due to digital signage.