In administering the organization, communication is the key element that determines the efficiency, effectiveness and performance of the organization in discharging its duties, especially in the Malaysian Armed Forces (ATM) in general and particularly the Army (TD).Through communication with a direction or order can be delivered by senior officers to subordinate properly and in turn can give success in implementing tasks for each member to know who, what, when and how it should be done.
Communication is also able to detect quickly the various problems faced by the transmission of ideas by members of the organization, where conditions allow every opportunity to be snapped up by the communication system. If the communication practices can not meet the requirements of the subordinate, it will surely affect all plans and will indirectly affect the level of success of the organization. Thus, without effective communication, an organization will not grow and viable, and indirectly it will not boost the trust of a member, and assist each other to love each other.
Communication in a military organization is a mandatory thing, especially in war. With the effective communication of a war that can be planned and implemented successfully. Therefore, it is important to all members of the organization to create and cultivate an effective communication system that connects to each other either at the top and lower levels.
Without effective communication, quality service can not be achieved in the organization (Bowen and Schneider, 1985). Thus the effectiveness of communication is an important element in the success of an organization because it is a key determinant of individual and group performance in organizational effectiveness and efficiency, where effective communication is required by the upper and lower levels (Zeithml, Berry and Parasuraman, 1988).
According to (store Robbins, Judge, 2009) each person spending about 70% of the day to communicate, whether speaking, listening, writing and reading. This shows that communication is a force for each organization to be successful because there is no individual, group or organization would exist without communication. Communication also serves to control, motivate, express feelings and give information. So communication is very important because it can control the behavior of members of the organization by providing formal guidance to the members comply. In addition, communication is also a tool in enhancing subordinate motivation by clarifying to what and how a task should be done in the performance of their duties. (Robbins, Judge, 20 090).
This activity can be seen in a military parade in which an officer is to give punishment to existing parades and action by the subordinate of the comfortable position to position themselves ready to comply with the instructions given. This sentence requires an officer with the necessary skills and effective communication channels to provide accurate source of information, while the subordinate is required skills to hear and receive the right information resources through the proper channels to subordinate understand the duties to be performed. Movements performed simultaneously, quickly and without offense will be able to perform well and give satisfaction to the chief and subordinate, and to all those who see the parade.
So communication is fundamental to the success of an organization that has effective communication with good condition. In brief success of the organization depends on effective communication by team members. If an organization is unsuccessful in the competition, indirectly it shows members of the organization has no effective communication. Therefore, every member of the organization must play an important role, especially in terms of communication.
According to (Kathryn, Martin, 1998) the success of Southwest Airlines United States, which suggests that effective communication is a substance that is vital for the success of the organization. Effective communication is critical, especially the management function as it should be
provide communication channels to communicate to influence others and provide accurate information sources to understand that the performance can be implemented successfully.It can also be achieved when a manager has the skills or good communication skills to communicate with employees. Without effective communication, although it has a strong strategy and the best possible plan will fail.
1.2 REVIEW ISSUES
Effective communication exists when the sender sends a message to the recipient understood clearly and accurately and provide feedback as required by the sender.Therefore this study wanted to see and identify the factors that lead to effective communication within the organization. By identifying these factors, it can be used as a guide in the improvement and effective communication to improve relationships within the organization to stay healthy. Factors to be studied are:
a. Communication skills. Did these factors influence a significant relationship to effective communication because the presence of good communication skills both speaking, listening, understanding, provide feedback, write and tolerance will impact positively in giving a commitment to the organization. For example, the instructions given by his superiors easily understood by the service is good and there is tolerance and understanding the needs of subordinates.
b. Information Resources. While the source of information and communication factors are also important in establishing effective communication within the organization and whether these factors also affect the relationship with effective communication. For example, an officer or a subordinate who has resources and deliver accurate and truthful information will affect effective communication within the organization. It will also provide trust and confidence to communicate with each other within the organization.
c. Communication Channels. The study also will look at the factors of communication channels used are appropriate and quality requirements that may affect the relationship of subordinated effective communication. For example face communication (face to face) and two-way communication between the superior and subordinate will foster effective communication, in which subordinates are free to voice their opinions and views and openly accepted by his superiors. With the communication channels are always open and harmonious,
interaction by the senior and subordinate will always exist and will indirectly increase subordinate commitment to the organization.
d. The study also will look at the contribution that can be explained by factors relevant to the effectiveness of communication. Using the values obtained, the study will find out that there may be other factors that may influence the effectiveness of communication.
Communication comes from the Latin word 'communcare' is meant to create equality. It is a broad field and a process that has no beginning and end and walked without stopping.Communication is a process in which ideas, values and attitudes transferred
and shared by individuals with other individuals. When we communicate we want to create equality with others, where we try
rise to what is within us and find similarities with the person involved in the communication process. This equality requires us to communicate effectively so that similarity can be enjoyed by others, and indirectly a task can be implemented successfully.
According to the Grolier Encyclopedia (1987), communication refers to a wide variety of behaviors, processes and technology for a particular purpose of channeling information.Communication is also used to describe activities such as conversation and information exchange. Oral communication which includes communication and intrapersonal and interpersonal associated with speech or conversation. While non-verbal communication is associated with body movements, facial movements, eye and Posture.
According to the Oxford dictionary (1995), communication is the response made to spread the word. It refers to the study of the principles and methodology
about how information is transmitted. While Webster's dictionary (1984) also stated that communication is the action or process of communicating. It involves the exchange of ideas, messages or information by speech, writing and gesture. Communication is also a system of sending and receiving information through letters, memos, phone, fax, newspapers and television.
Daniels and Spiker (1991) is defining the meaning of communication as a partnership between two or more persons through verbal and non verbal communication. Include any form of information that can be detected by seseoarang and purposes have occurred when the information is placed in a specific content.
Locker (1995) described communication as a variety of behaviors, processes and technology that involves a purpose is understood as a result of information disseminated.The term used to describe communication activities in the form of a conversation or exchange of information. Communication between humans is the oral communication and interpersonal communication.
According to Hisham Al-Talib (1992) defines the communication is a process that involves the sharing of ideas, feelings and thoughts from one person to another person or group of other individuals. It is a process where we let others know ourselves, and communication is a dynamic process, shaped tranasional, personal and sequential.
According to Abdullah, Hassan and Ainon Mohd (2001) also defines communication as a process by which a person is to share experiences with others. Communication is the process by which a person is
create meaning through interaction with other individuals. When a person wants to be an effective preacher, one of which must be in possession of skills is interpersonal communication skills. Many people think that as long as one is good at talking he was able to communicate well, this statement is not accurate. Communicating is not just talk, but it includes the act, dress, and even the movements of the body can also provide a specific message to the recipient.
George and Jones (2004) also defines communication as the sharing of information with others. When a student told the lecturer he was having trouble completing the assignment, students had been carrying out the communication process when trying to share information with others. In addition, various opinions have been documented by scholars of communication. According to Stoner (1995) communication as a process in which people try to share the purpose of the presentation of symbolic messages.
According to Hargie, Dickson and Tourish (1999), communication is the scientific study of the production system of symbols used by people to send and receive messages. It includes three dimensions as follows:
a. Communication is a process that is open to the measurement, analysis, evaluation and improvement.
b. The study of communication has always focused on how the message is produced, processed and delivered (in person, in writing or through an intermediary technology) and its effect on the recipient.
c. The importance of signals and symbols are preferred. Open the message is less important than the implied meaning. Interpersonal behavior are usually measured through verbal and non-verbal signals (Hargie et al, 1999).
Based on some of the definitions given by previous researchers, it can be concluded that the communication has four important aspects:
a. Involving men in connection with each other individually or as groups.
b. `The process of delivery of information and ideas through verbal and non verbal communication.
c. Communication involves a shared purpose or to create equality.
d. Communication involves the meaning and symbols, such as movement, sounds, letters, numbers and words.
Communication is a very important management tool for any organization. Ability to manage communications with the good will to help
organizations perform management functions more effectively. Fundamental in communication is the message or information sent must be received clearly to produce effective communication in order to enhance organizational performance.
1.5.2 Effective Communication
According to Che Siah in Effective Communication Bulletin (1994) state the effective communication is a process of transformation, transmission or
delivery of information, thoughts, feelings and ideas from one person to another person or group of other individuals, which can result in feedback / appropriate response as expected by the communicators. It refers to situations where there is understanding and
compatibility between the communicating parties. This perfect situation will enable smooth communication and communication goals.
1.5.3 Communication in Organizations
Organization consists of a number of persons holding certain positions and roles.Exchange of messages between among members occurs through a channel called the communications network. A communications network may consist of only two or the whole organization. The role played by individuals in the communication system is determined by their structural relationships with other individuals in the system. Communications in
the organization in Figure 1.1 is divided into three directions, namely:
a. Communications to bottom. Referring to the message flow from top to
Under that is relevant to the instruction, discipline, goals, orders or questions.
b. Vertical Communications. Referring to the message flow from bottom to top
which typically seeks to put questions to get feedback and make suggestions. This communication has the effect of raising morale and attitudes of members.
c. Horizontal communication. An exchange of messages among
people who have the same power level in the organization. Normally associated with the process of problem solving, coordination, conflict resolution and rumors.
Figure 1.1. Types of Communication in Organizations.
Communication Communication Top-Down
1.5.4 Military Organization.
Military organization is an armed security force that is organized and structured as a hierarchy that consists of a number of the person holding the position and role. The role played by
individuals determined by their structural relationships with other individuals. MilitaryOrganization is a unique organization that can dikatogerikan as an organization that is characterized by mechanistic. According to Robin and Coulter (2009) mechanisticorganizations were categorized as having the following characteristics: highSpecialization, rigid departmentalization, narrow span of control, centralization, highformalization. These features really make the organization has a limited communication network and a small participation by subordinates in decision making. In summary the effectiveness of communication in the military organization requires a commitment by top management to create a harmonious atmosphere and open communication and overcome the obstacles that exist to be subordinated to understand and carry out their duties properly. Examples of military organizations
as shown in Figure 1.2 and the composition as shown in Table 1.1.
Figure 1.2. Examples of the Military Organization of the Infantry Team.
Organization of a Service Corps Battalion consisted of Headquarters Battalion and three companies of the transport companies, supply companies and air delivery company. The strength of belonging in a batallion is five hundred officers and members. Because of thislarge membership, communication problems often occur even at the weekly meetings and orders issued in the first part of every day. Many members still fail to comply with thedirectives issued.
Table 1.1 Composition of Organization
Org Officers Other Ranks (LLP)
Peg Peg AEC Senior Middle / Senior Assistant PTT PTT Private Primary
Lt Col Maj Capt Lt / Lt M PW 1 / 2 SSjn Sjn Cpl LKpl PBT
Bn 1 7 10 14 7 15 20 30 50 70
Downs & Hazen (1977) study the effectiveness of overall communication skills including communication, channels of communication and information resources. Conrad (1994) in his study of human relations theory more focused on communication skills.
Effectiveness of communication theory which is the basis for this study based on studies Downs & Hazen (1977). They concluded that the effectiveness of the communication is made up of several dimensions that include the perspective of organization, unity, organization, personal feedback, relationships with supervisors, informal horizontal communication, relationships with members of the lower, the quality of communication channels and communication environment.
Conrad (1994) in Human Relations theory emphasizes the relationship between top management and lower levels. According to the theory
to improve communication links consisting of benevolent attitude, openness, support and encourage participation will enhance the effectiveness of communication within the organization. Through quality communication channels open, will be able to enhance the relationship between top management to lower levels. The study by Downs & Hazen (1993) proved that communication between colleagues, and communications to the high mean value in terms of effective communication.
2.2 EFFECTIVENESS OF COMMUNICATIONS
Communications effectiveness refers to situations where there is mutual understanding and compatibility between the communicating parties. Perfect situation will allow communications to run smoothly and achieve its objectives. Downs & Hazen (1993) considers that the role of communication focused on mechanistic and psychological perspective. They divided the effectiveness of communication to the eight dimensions as follows:
a. Communications to the
b. Communications to the Bottom.
c. Colleagues Communications.
d. Cohesiveness of the organization.
e. Organization information.
f. Personal Feedback.
g. Environmental Communication.
h. Information Quality.
Communications effectiveness refers to the overall effectiveness of the members in an organizational setting. The effectiveness of communication can be achieved in eight dimensions as follows:
a. Tasks related information. The extent to which communication can help motivate members to increase their commitment and achievement of organizational goals.
b. An adequacy of information. Sajauh senior officer
open to any ideas, willing to listen and to what extent they are able to provide guidance for any problem works.
c. Potential for improvement so that members get
information about a task.
d. Efficient communication channels, regular meetings, instruction
clear and concise.
e. Quality media environment, with no horizontal communication
f. The way in which co-workers to communicate.
g. Members may feel that they know how they
evaluated in terms of performance.
h. Communications effectiveness refers also to comfort
in how to communicate, message and communication within the organization. An effective relationship would feel if a transfer of information that is consistent with the way he liked.
However, the effectiveness of communication does not mean the work commitment will increase as a whole, but it is to contribute toward that. The effectiveness of communication is influenced by several factors such as environment, quality of information and information channels. It can be achieved with adequate information, efficient channel and means of communication appropriate to the organization's needs (Wayne, 1994).
Petit, Goirs & Vaught (1997) also concluded the effectiveness of communication to the six dimensions of trust in superiors, influence of superiors, the accuracy of information, desire for interaction, communication satisfaction
and communication load. Top management plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of communication within the organization. They put the skills of communication and information resources as two important factors in effective communication. As a formulation, the effectiveness of communication depends on the skills of communication and information sources and channels of communication and in which the role played by top management to determine the lower members have sufficient information.
2.3 THEORY OF COMMUNICATION
To further this study, researchers have made reference to the relevant communication theories. The theory is important to prove that the selection of PU for this study have a strong rationale. This study will only touch briefly some relevant theoretical research problems only.
2.3.1 Theory of Communication "Dyadic".
'Dyadic' means a relationship between two people. Most daily communication occurs in this context. Many scholars hold that the communications 'dyadic' is important in the organization. Weick (1979) believe
that the interaction between two parties is the foundation of human relationships, and he also acknowledges the importance of communication 'dyadic' in the organization.Communication theories based on the theory of 'dyadic' is Motivation Theory, Theory of Personality and Legal Theory (Daniels & Spiker, 1987). In the military context, frequent communication is among the leaders and the led. This is fundamental to the effectiveness of communication in the military organization.
2.3.2 Theory of Human Relations.
This method focuses on the social and psychological aspects. Researchers have shown that the relationship between communication, job satisfaction and performance is more complex than what is believed by the pioneers of human relationships, such as Likert and Conrad. Likert (1967) has resulted in a complete system of leadership with an assessment in terms of communication within the organization. It is preferred that members of the team that overlap and participate in decision-making process (Jabli et al. 1987). This study will only look at in terms of the effectiveness of communication without touching on job satisfaction. Psychological aspects that are relevant for this study is on communication skills.
2.3.3 Systems Theory.
They focus on the processes shaping the activities of the organization. In terms of communication, the focus of the organization in response to an information handling uncertainty and conflict management
the subsystem (Jabli et al. 1987). In a study on the effectiveness of communication is an element of uncertainty should be dealt with accordingly. This study will give emphasis on this aspect, especially in connection with important information on the tasks that are sent to each member in the discharge.
In summary, a clear understanding of communication theories can help researchers determine the direction of this study. Communication theories
discussed many aspects of humanity such as describing the attitude of the recipient of information sources and perception of communicators of the recipient. Aspects of 'semantics' has an effective impact on this study because it is closely related to information resources, communication channels and communication skills. In addition, the theories also touched on the Org organization and activity patterns in the organization.Clear understanding of communication theory can help researchers choose the appropriate PU for this study. PU selected for this study is based on several findings that have been produced by previous studies. Based on studies conducted in the past, three main factors identified as having a relationship with the effectiveness of the communication skills of communication (Walther, 1988), communication channels (Westmyer, Diciocio & Rubin, 1998) and information resources (Walther, 1988). In summary of the previous studies, factors that are important to the effectiveness of communication is as follows:
a. Communication skills
i. Communication efficiency.
ii. Interpersonal skills.
b. Information Resources
i. Adequacy of information.
ii. Information received.
iii. Accuracy of the information.
c. Communication Channels
i. Communication between the upper and lower levels.
ii. Communication in person, meetings and briefings.
iii. Communication through electronic media, mail and telephone
COMMUNICATION SKIL 02.04
According to Andrew Drysdale, Director of Communications Boise Cascade Corporation in the Locker (1995), the purpose of communication within the organization is to influence members to do something that is consistent with the goals of the organization. Senior managers the ability to play the role effectively depends on the skills to understand the needs and desires of members of the organization. These capabilities are communication skills that include how to speak, speak, write and use of electronic media.
Maes, Weldy & Icenogle (1997) concluded that the skills of listening, conversation skills, and according to the instructions is the most frequently used when communicating. The highest mean value of all the skills of listening to (4.74), according to the directions (4:52) and conversation skills (4.53). In terms of importance, the most important skills are the instructions of (4.66), listening skills (4.60), conversation skills (4.47) and giving feedback (4.00).
Non-verbal communication were found to have significant influence on the effectiveness of communication. Graham, Unruh & Jennings (1991) proves that 'facial expression', 'voice tone and body movement to give satisfaction to the recipient communication. Scudder & Guinan (1998) relates the effectiveness of communication with the communication skills such as interpersonal skills, oral communication, written communication and communication efficiency. Communication skills refers to the ability or competence in communicating information effectively.
According to Bennet & Onley (1986), the communication skills have a major impact on an executive to rise to higher levels within the organization. Three critical skills for an executive is interpersonal, written communication and oral communication. The main problem faced by the organization on the effectiveness of communication is due to the lack of clear information, poor listening skills, information that is not compact, weak ability to explain orally and analysis of the weak force. According to Kanungo & Misra (1992) has succeeded in distinguishing between competencies and skills required by a successful manager. Efficiency is the fundamental nature required for non-routine tasks and skills required is the ability to perform tasks more specific. Communication skills are important for a manager is public relations, conducting meetings skills, presentation skills, how to deal with customer objections and skills to address conflict.
From the viewpoint of Islam, for example communication skills shown by Rasullah saw service in which the concept of God with wisdom brochure is also best practice that should be emulated. Those who follow the way of communicating current missionary Rasullah SAW has promised paradise for them. Communication skills are overlooked by Islam by putting in place the highest of all (Nur Iskandar, 1997).
From the point of another Islamic perspective, how the communication skills demonstrated by the Prophet Abraham is amazing in the story of the slaughter
his son Ishmael. In the Qur'an (37:102) Allah says "And when the child is up (at age willing to) work with him and said:" O my son, verily I saw in a dream that I am slaughtering you.So think about what you think: 'he replied, "O my father, do what ye are commanded!" InsyaAllah you will find one of those people who are patient ". Conclusion to be drawn from this passage is Abraham communication skills play an important role as information provider and the recipient receives information which together achieve its objectives through effective communication.
2.5 CHANNEL COMMUNICATIONS
Communication channels are the choices available within the organization for the dissemination of information. Channel selection depends on the suitability of the channel with the organization in accordance with the circumstances and particular situation.Shorter communication channels are more accurate than the longer lines of communication. Oral communication channels, for example, is suitable for decision-making process. It allows any confusion can be resolved quickly because actors can interact directly. However, the choice of communication channels is also influenced by the culture of an organization. In the Microsoft Corporation, the preferred channel is electronic mail (Locker, 1995).
Westmyer et al. (1998) also concluded that there are six channels of interpersonal communication is face to face, telephone, 'viocemail, electronic mail, letter and fax. They therefore conclude that the communication channels of oral communication, written communication and through the medium. Bordia (1997) found the experience of using computers have different effects on expectations, acceptance and effectiveness of communication. Typing efficiency are important factors in determining the effectiveness of communication using computer mediation. The findings of the study show that communication through the computer takes longer than face communication in decision making. In organizational management, face to face communication is more suitable because it is more open and transparent. In military organizations, face to face communication is considered very important because it has become practice. Based on the concept of leadership, this role is played by leaders and members of the led.
Oral communication is an important channel of communication within the organization.Communications to the bottom is in the form of work instructions, procedures and ways of behavior, feedback on the performance of subordinates and a description of the goals of the organization. Scudder & Guinan (1988), believe that communications from the ground up to instill 'sense of belonging "among employees subordinate to the organization.Members of their subordinates will feel more appreciated when they are accepted by top management. Communication on the importance of top management as it is essential information for decision-making process. Communication on the accounting for such things as information on employees, information about other employees, information on company policies and information about how a job should be done (Schnake, Dumler, Cochran & Barnett, 1990). Horizontal communication is just as important in the organization. According to Wayne (1994), horizontal communication form a good relationship between employees. It also enhances the understanding and also provide space for members of the organization to share information.
Schnake et al. (1990) is more emphasis on communication between the upper and lower classes in the study of the effectiveness of communication. Their review was based on earlier research done by Kazt & Kahn (1966) on the communication from the top to bottom and from bottom to top.
Referring to the holy Qur'an (42:51), Allah says: "And it was not someone that people even that God should speak to him
except with the mediation of revelation or from behind a veil, or by sending a messenger (angel) and revealed to him by His permission what He wills. Indeed, He is exalted more wisdom. " Conclusion to be drawn from this passage is that the communication channel is very important in Islam so that people get a real satisfaction in the fulfillment of God's commandments. To achieve effective communication, management is responsible for determining the communication channels are in perfect condition without any interference.
In summary, the findings of previous studies clearly show that the skills of communication, channels of communication and information resources is the most important factor in effective communication. Walther (1998) formulation of information sources and channels of communication as the most important factor. Kohut & Segars (1992) also emphasizes the information content. For Petit, Goris & Vaught (1997), they are more likely to influence superiors and accuracy of the information as an important factor. Westmyer et al. (1997) concluded that channels of communication as the most important factor. Scudder & Guinan (1998) link communication skills with effective communication. Graham et al (1991) also share the same opinion about the importance of communication skills.
2.6 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
Managers play an important role in managing information. According to Henry Mintzberg, the main task is to get information manager, channel and decision-making and better integration within the organization. Each task is done through communication. Sources of information are important in determining the effectiveness of communication within the organization (Locker, 1995). Walther (1998) also concluded that the effectiveness of communication include dimensions such as the amount of information received, the information sent, follow-up, the source, accuracy, relationships, revenue and channel decisions. So to measure the effectiveness of communication of an organization, have formed PU is based on the information. This is because information is the central issue in interpersonal communication.
Kohut & Segars (1992) found that companies that have a return on equity is more concerned with news content higher than companies with low returns. The good news will be given wider coverage while negative news in the form of Subscription TV was so much simpler. While positive news given priority because it can increase employee motivation.Sources of information will determine the adequacy of the information and the accuracy of the information. Uncertainty in the organization refers to the lack of information, knowledge, trust and certain requirements to achieve organizational goals. Whistleblowers aim is to reduce uncertainty (Driskil & Golstein, 1986). Functions of an executive or manager is to stimulate the communication process within the organization so that everyone gets the information be received. With this information, it will reduce the uncertainty.
In discussing the sources of information, Fann & smelter (1989) the concept of 'uncertainty' and 'equivocality'. 'Uncertainty' occurs when an organization is the absence of important information for decision-making process. 'Equivocality' was present when the information or contents of a message is misleading or difficult to understand. Actually, the concept of 'uncertainty' and 'equivocality' is not new as such, was described clearly in the holy book the Qur'an. Truth and kesasihan source of information is the central issue in Islam. In the Qur'an (39:2) Allah says in the Quran "We sent down the Book to the Holy Qur'an with the truth, so worship Allah, offering Him sincere devotion to Him". This was revealed as a reminder to Muslims of any deception or confusion. For example, during the time of the Prophet, lies not only occurred among the heathen, and even Muslim pilgrims also occur slander and lies. Among the largest are considered slander and lies about the Prophet's wife Ayesha RA Syaidatina accused of incest occurred with a friend of Ibn Mu'athal Shafwan (Nur Iskandar, 1997).
Taking the Qur'an as a guide, the truth is clear it will not be any problems arising from 'uncertainty' and 'equvocality'. Indeed, the contents of the holy Quran is beautiful and so orderly arrangement. All questions will be answered if done properly reference. Sources of information contained in it is a complement that includes all aspects of human kehudupan.It is undeniable that the source of information is an important factor in effective communication.
5.3 SUMMARY OF STUDY
From the findings of the study found the effectiveness of communication in the organization plays an important role in the performance of daily tasks. Tolerance on communication and always give the right information, authentic and add to the quality of the channel is always open is required. Face communication channels and personal communication skills also showed an important factor to help organizations create effective communication. They felt that the tasks performed are very useful and beneficial to the organization to achieve the assigned mission. The factors that have relationships with effective communication can be summarized as follows:
a. Information Resources. Sources of information is essential in achieving the organization's mission. Content is clear, concise, simple, concise and authoritative will strengthen effective communication because each member will understand the organization's policies from time to time, understand that their job and get satisfaction in discharging their responsibilities as members of the organization. This is because doubt can be answered what, when, who, where and how the objectives to be achieved.
b. Quality Channels (qs). Communication channels can be implemented in a variety of forms such as face to face, discussions, briefings, meetings, through memos, letters, reports and so on. But is it quality
which may lead to effective communication, where there is a similarity between one another, can make the right decisions as a group and are ready to receive views and suggestions in achieving the organization's mission.
c. Communication channels Face (ftf). Communication in this way would have to strengthen the relationship and harmony within the organization. It allows managers to recognize members of a close subordinate to the needs and problems, in addition to direct commands and receive feedback quickly and accurately. Indirectly will demonstrate loyalty and trust management.
d. Personal skills. Each person will spend approximately 70% of the day to communicate either talking, listening, writing and using body movement. In order to achieve effective communication, a person is in need of personal communication skills such as calm and patient in a conversation, show sincerity and interest in communicating, listening with great interest and keen sense of control and using positive language. This attitude will lead to others like to communicate with us.
e. Manager skills. Although it has no relationship
significantly to the effectiveness of communication but it can not be rejected because the manager is responsible for preparing and mencorakan communications in military organizations. The attitude of the manager plays an important role to tolerate, accept the open, to avoid a sense of ego and give instructions in a smart and try to get feedback to ensure that subordinates understand the duties of which will be implemented.
Dititik communication effectiveness is concerned in the organization because it is fundamental to the success of the organization in discharging its duties and responsibilities well. Although the military organization as a hierarchical structure is too rigid to regulations that can limit communication, but this problem can be overcome if each individual member of either the manager or subordinate role and understanding, and tolerance, effective communication will certainly exist for the success of the organization.
Organizations that want to succeed, effective communication is important in daily practice to perform the duties and responsibilities. The effectiveness of communication within the organization will be able to motivate, control, express, communicate and provide information to members of the organization. Therefore, this study would like to offer suggestions to improve the effectiveness of communication within the organization:
a. In theory this study was to identify the factors
the sources of information, communication skills (personal skills and management) and communication channels (face to face communication and quality of channels) leads to the effectiveness of communication within the organization. It is therefore important to know the gist organization, analyze and prepare the contents of these factors. By providing a set of guidelines will be able to prepare and provide understanding to the members of the organization to communicate effectively.
b. Communication is a social tool for an individual to interact with other individuals or in groups to succeed, whether in families, communities and organizations. To achieve the communication objective, it should be practiced in daily life. The proposed organization take the initiative to practice effective communication are:
i. Organizations need to be committed to ensure the effectiveness of communication can be improved. This commitment will help accelerate the improvement process. Good communication between the top and bottom members will be able to help organizations develop efficient communication strategies. The effectiveness of communication should be included in the objectives so that teams can be utilized by all members.
ii. Organizations need to provide a channel of communication to create a common quality of all the members of the organization to pave the way so that communication can walk freely without any interference. This channel can be implemented by conducting face to face communication, such as welfare meeting more frequently to members of the problem can be resolved immediately, the assignment presented orally to the lower member that members can provide feedback on the tasks assigned, the assignment briefing that members of higher management can provide suggestions and views to improve performance.
iii. In attitudes of individuals in order to communicate effectively, it is proposed that the subject of communication as part of the syllabus and subjects in the training centers to provide basic exposure in communicating. With no knowledge of this will give you confidence to manage the communications officer and members of the LLP to communicate with superiors
The results of this study show that effective communication is universal whether in public institutions and kenteraan. findings
This study supports many previous studies. Overall, this study has achieved its objective to test the developed model and found it suitable to be used in conjunction with testing the effectiveness of communication. This study can also be used by organizations to train andenhance effective communication. Hence, all the findings, conclusions, andrecommendations presented analysis can be utilized by the organization to make plansaccordingly.
Abdullah Hassan & Ainon Mohd (2001). Komunikasi Untuk Pemimpin, PST Publication & Distrubutors Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur.
Bennet, J.C & Onley, R.J (1986), Executive Priorities for Effective Communication: A Synthesis of The Experimental Literature, The Journal of Communication.
Bordia, P. (1997). Face to Face Versus Computer Mediated Communication: A Synthesis of The Experimental Literature, The Journal of Business Communication.
Bowen, D. E. dan Schneider, B. (1985), Boundary – Spanning Role of Employees and The Service Encounter: Somed Guidelines for Management and Research. Dlm. The Service Encounter: Managing Employee/Customer Interaction in Service Businesses, J. Czepiel, M. Solomon, and C. Surprenant, eds, Lexington, MA: D. C. Health, 127-47.
Che Siah Romly (1994). Komunikasi Berkesan Dalam Organisasi: Tinjauan Masalah Yang Dihadapi Oleh Pegawai-Pegawai Awam, Buletin Komunikasi Berkesan Jilid 3 Bil 1. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara.
Clampit, P & Down. (1993) Employees Perceptions of The Relationship Between Communication and Productivity. The Journal of Business Communication. 30 (1), 5 – 28
Conrad, C. (1994). Strategic Organization Communication: Toward The Twenty First Century, Third Edition, Florida, Winston, Inc.
Daniels, T.D & Spiker, B.K (1991). Perspectives On Organization Communication, Brown Publishers Dubuwue, Iowa.
Down, C. & Hazen, M.A (1977). A Factor Analytic Study of Communication Satisfaction. The Journal of Business Communication, 14, Spring,
Daniel, T.D & Spikers, B.K (1987). Perspective On Organization Communication, Brown Publishers Dubuque, Iowa.
Driskill, L.P & Golstein, J.R (1986) Uncertainty: Theory and Practice in Organizational Communication, The Journal of Business Communication.
Fann, G.K & Smeltzer, L.R. (1989). Communication Attributes Used By Small Business Owner/Managers For Operation Decision Making, The Journal of Business Communication.
Goldhaver, Gerald M. Organizational Communication. Brown Company Publisher, Iowa, 1983.
Grolier Academic Encylopedia (1987), Grolier International, Inc
Goerge, J.M dan Jones, G. R. (2004). Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior, 4th Ed. USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Graham, G.H, Unruh, J. & Jennings, P. (1991). The Impact of Nonverbal Communication in Organization: A Survey of Perceptions, The Journal of Business Communication.
Hargie, O. Dickson, D. & Tourish, D. (1999). Communication in Management, Gower Publishing Limited, England.
Hisham Al Talib. Panduan Latihan bagi Petugas Islam. Nusir Enterprise, Kuala Lumpur, 1992
Kathryn M. Bartol and David C. Martin, 1998, Management Third Edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Kohut, G.F. & Segar, A.H. (1992). The President's Letter to Stockholder An Examination of Corporate Communication Strategy, The Journal of Business Communication.
Kanungo, R.N, & Misra, S. (1992). Managerial Resourcefulness: A Reconceptualization of Management Skills, Human Relations.
Locker, K.O. (1995). Business and Administrative Communication, Third Edition, Richard D. Irwin, Inc, United State of America.
Likert, R (1967). New Patterns of Management, New York: McGraw Hill in Shockley-Zalabak, P (1999), Fundamentals of Organizational Communication. Longman, New York.
Maes, J.D, Weldy, T.G, & Icenogle, M.L (1997). A Manegerial Perspective: Oral Communication Competency is Most Important for Business Student in The Workplace, The Journal of Business Communication.
Olmstead, J.A (1973).Working Papers No 2, Organizational Strcture and Climate:Implication for Agencies: National Study of Social Walfare and Rehabilition Workers.
Petit, J.D, Goris, J.R & Vaught, B.C (1997). An Examination of Organisational Communication as Moderator of The Relationship Between Job Performance and Job Satisfaction, The Journal of Business Commnication.
R.H Lengel and R.L Daft (1988). "The Selection of Communication Media as an Executive Skill". Academy of Management Executive, August 1988.
Scudder, J.N. & Guinan, P.J. (1998). Communication Competencies As Discriminator of Superior's Rating of Employee Performance, The Journal of Business Communication.
Schnaker, M.E, Dumler, M.P , Cochran, D.S & Barnett, T.R. (1990). Effects of Differences in Superior and Subordinate Perception of Superiors' Communication Practice, The Journal of Business Communication.
Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge, 2009, Organizational Behavior, 13th Edition, by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
Stephen P. Robbins and Mary Coulter (2009). Management. Tenth Edition, Pearson Education, Inc, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
Sekaran, U. (2000). Research Method For Business, A Skill-Building Approach, Third Edition, John Wiley & sons, Inc.
Sally Sample (2006). Communication Effectiveness Questionaire. International People Management.
Tuah Iskandar, H.M (1997). Mengislamisasikan Komunikasi Warta, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
The Coincise Oxford Dictionary, (1995). Ninth Edition Clarendor Press, Oxford.
Webster's II, New Riverside University Dictionary, The Riverside Publishing Compay, 1984
Wayne, R.P. (1994). Organization Communication, Third Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
Weick. K. (1979). The Social Psychology of Organizaing Reading, MA: Addison, Wesley.
Walther, J.B (1988). Communication Satisfaction in the Bank: An Audit Evaluation, The Journal of Business Communication.
Westmyer, S.A, Dicioccio, R.L & Rubin, R.B (1998). Appropriateness and Effectiveness of Communication Channels in Competent Interpersonal Communication, The Journal of Business Communication, Summer.
Zeithml, V. A., Berry, L. L. dan Parasuraman, A. (1988), Communication and Control Processes in the Delivery of Service Quality, Journal of Marketing, 52 (April), 35-48.