This is an excellent question. Many people are unsure how to use it appropriately. I'm not an English expert in any way shape or form, but I'll share what I do know.
In British English, it follows the more logical method...
My Mom says I am a "slob", but I think it is unfair to call me a "slob".
On the other hand, American English always requires periods and commas to go inside the quotation marks, irregardless of what would be linguistically logical.My Mom says I am a "slob," but I think it is unfair to call me a "slob."
The only real exception I'm aware of is regarding quoted words or statements that flow in your sentence without the need for a break or pause.The phrase "chivalry is dead" suggests that the expectations of men in today's society has changed.
In these cases, you bypass the rule by avoiding the usage of a comma/period.If there is anyone who is more experienced than I, please share your feedback!